Roussea, a monotypic genus endemic to Mauritius, has for a long time been associated with Brexia (Celastraceae). Recently, it has been shown that Roussea is placed correctly in the mainly Australasian Asterales, but the sister group to Roussea has not been unequivocally identified. Cladistic analysis of the chloroplast genes ndhF and rbcL identifies the sister group to Roussea as Carpodetaceae. Recognizing this relationship, the monotypic Rousseaceae is merged with Carpodetaceae into Rousseaceae s.l. comprising two subfamilies. This group is characterized by many-locular ovaries and similarities in the appearance of the petals. Rousseaceae s.l. exhibit a disjunct distribution in Mauritius, East Australia, New Zealand and New Guinea.