David C. Tank, Richard C. Winkworth, Johannes Lundberg and Michael J. Donoghue. An update on campanulid phylogeny. Presentation given by David Tank at Plant Biology & Botany 2007, July 7-11, 2007, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. (not attended by J. Lundberg).

Previous phylogenetic studies have strongly supported the monophyly of campanulids, as well as the sister group relationship of Aquifoliales to the remainder of campanulids. However, despite considerable effort, relationships among the three major lineages, Apiales, Asterales, and Dipsacales, have remained unresolved, and the number of unassigned families has increased, effectively creating a deca-chotomy at the base of the core campanulids. In addition, relationships among the basal lineages within each of the major clades of campanulids has remained uncertain. This lack of resolution has hindered studies of morphological evolution and biogeography, as well as the identification of diagnostic morphological synapomorphies for these lineages. Here we provide an update on the phylogenetic relationships of campanulids, based on more than 14 gene regions representing the chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes. Strong support for novel phylogenetic relationships, as well as those that were previously only weakly supported are discussed in relation to earlier phylogenetic hypotheses. With a clearer understanding of relationships within and among the major lineages of campanulids, we address the evolution of several major morphological characters and historical biogeography.